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Like every other part of your body, every vagina and vulva is different but worrying about what’s ‘normal’ is really common. Here, we run through some of the basics of how the vagina and vulva actually work.
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We often refer to the external genital organs (the bits you can see) as the vagina, but this is actually called the vulva. The vagina is the muscular tube inside the body that leads from the cervix (the opening of the womb) to the vulva.
As part of your vulva you have two
sets of labia – the outer labia which are covered in pubic hair and often
fleshier and the inner labia which don’t have any pubic hair on them. The size
of the labia can vary from person to person.
The area about the labia, where you have pubic hair, is known as the mons. Below this and at the top of your labia you will find the clitoris which looks like a small pea-shaped bump, with a hood of skin covering it. The sole purpose of the clitoris is to provide sexual pleasure. The clitoris is packed full of nerves, which means it can be extremely sensitive to touch.
Underneath this you will see small dot
or slit, which is the opening of your urethra and where you wee from, and below
that is the vaginal opening. This is where blood comes out during your period
and is where you can insert tampons or cups during your period.
Have a look at your vulva with a hand held mirror. It’s an important and amazing part of your body and it is good to become familiar with it.
When you become aroused the blood flow
to the vaginal walls increases and causes lubrication to make the vagina wet.
The external genitals can also swell and inside the body, the vagina expands.
Getting closer to orgasm, the clitoris
pulls back against the pubic bone, and as orgasm happens the sexual tension
that has been built up is released in a short burst, the genital muscles
contract and feel-good chemicals are released by your brain.
Sometimes penetrative sex can be painful and this could be for a number of reasons such as not enough lubrication in the vagina, the position, your emotions, or it could be cause by an infection. If you are worried speak to a doctor or nurse.
The hymen – also sometimes called a
corona – is a ring of thin skin which covers part of the opening of the vagina.
It does not cover the vaginal opening completely so that it can allow menstrual
blood out. When the hymen stretches it can feel uncomfortable or be a bit
painful. The purpose of the hymen is not known and everyone’s hymen is
When you have sex for the first time there can sometimes be bleeding afterwards if the hymen tears quickly, but not always. The hymen can also stretch from using tampons and activities such as playing sport.
Find out more about having sex for the first time.
You should wash your vulva gently every day using mild unperfumed soap. This avoids upsetting the pH balance of the vagina which can lead to infection such as thrush or bacterial vaginosis. The vagina will clean itself inside your body through secretions.
Washing inside the vagina (also called douching) removes helpful bacteria and changes the acidity in the vagina, which can lead to the development of thrush or bacterial vaginosis. Douching should be avoided for this reason . Scented wipes and vaginal deodorants can also disrupt the healthy balance of the vagina.
If your vaginal area is itchy or sore, or if you have changes to your discharge or notice that it smells, this could be a sign of an infection. Read more about whether you need to see a doctor here.
If you have had sex without a condom this could be a sign of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and you can find out more about getting an STI test. You may also need to think about emergency contraception.
If you are having sex you can use
contraception to prevent pregnancy and some of those methods are inserted into
the vagina. These include internal condoms, the vaginal ring and the IUD/IUS.
Find out more about all methods of contraception.
Cervical screening (sometimes called a
smear test) is a test which involves taking a small sample of cells from the
cervix. This can detect early cell changes in the cervix, and whether there are
any unhealthy cells that should be removed.
A doctor or nurse will use a small instrument called speculum
to open the vagina so that the cervix can be seen, and a small brush is used to
collect a sample of cells from the cervix for testing. Most people don’t find
the test painful, but some women
find the examination a bit embarrassing or uncomfortable.
Routine cervical screening begins at 25 and you can read more about cervical screening on the NHS website.
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