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Genital herpes is caused by the virus Herpes Simplex (HSV). There are two types, HSV 1 and HSV 2 and both can infect the genital and anal area and also the mouth and nose (cold sores).
Many people with HSV don’t have any visible signs or symptoms. If you do get symptoms they may include the following:
The first outbreak can last up to two to four weeks with the sores generally healing within 5 to 10 days. The sores will eventually scab and heal without scarring.
There is no cure for genital herpes so you may get further outbreaks. However, they are usually less severe and heal more quickly because your body will have had an opportunity to produce antibodies that fight infection. Some people find that certain things can trigger an outbreak, such as:
The virus is highly contagious and enters the body through small cracks in the skin or through the soft, moist lining of the mouth, vagina, rectum, urethra (where urine comes out) and under the foreskin.
Herpes is passed on during sexual contact and is most likely to be passed on before, during or immediately after an outbreak.
It is easiest to pass on when someone has blisters or sores. In some people the virus can be present without any symptoms of genital herpes and can be passed on (known as asymptomatic shedding).
It is passed from one person to another through:
You cannot get herpes from hugging, sharing baths or towels, swimming pools, toilet seats or from sharing cups, plates or cutlery.
You can only have a check-up for herpes when you have, or start to develop signs or symptoms. The doctor or nurse may be able to diagnose genital herpes by looking at the affected area but they will need to confirm this by taking a swab of fluid from the blisters in the affected area.
Genital herpes testing is free and you can get one at Brook services, GUM or sexual health clinics or at some GP surgeries. Find your nearest using our find a service tool.
Cervical smear tests and routine blood tests will not detect herpes.
Genital herpes will clear by itself however, seeking treatment early can significantly reduce the time the outbreak lasts and can help the healing process. It also reduces the risk of you passing it on to someone else.
You will be given antivirals which work by preventing the virus from multiplying but it does not clear the virus from your body completely.
Treatment is usually started within five days of the start of the first outbreak. Treatment involves taking antiviral tablets daily for five days. There are various types of antivirals that may be prescribed, common ones include aciclovir, famciclovir and valaciclovir.
Antibiotics will not work because genital herpes is a virus not a bacteria. The treatment you buy for oral cold sores will not work either.
Some people find that another course of antivirals helps with further outbreaks. For people who have multiple outbreaks (usually more than six a year), they may be given longer courses of medication. This is known as suppressive treatment. This means taking antiviral medication for a longer time period.
Antivirals are only designed to stop the virus multiplying and will not help your discomfort in the short term. For this, there are a few simple things you can do to ease the discomfort and speed up the healing process:
It is strongly advised that you do not have any sexual contact before or during an outbreak and for a week after your symptoms have completely gone.
The antivirals are safe to use with hormonal contraception (like the pill, patch, injection or implant) but talk to the person prescribing the treatment to make sure.
Genital herpes can be safely treated during pregnancy. It is important to discuss with your midwife if you have, or have had, herpes infections. The treatment you receive may depend on whether it is your first herpes infection and also where in the pregnancy you are but your midwife will advise you.
Not an STI but STIs can trigger it.
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