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Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and are small growths or bumps that appear on or around the genital or anal area.
There are over 100 different types of HPV which can affect different parts of the body. About 30 different types of HPV can affect the genital skin but 90% of genital warts are caused by two types of the virus (types 6 and 11).
Most people who have the HPV infection don’t have any visible symptoms and it can be months or even years before genital warts appear.
If warts do appear, they can either appear on their own, or in clusters a bit like a cauliflower. They are normally painless but in some people they can be itchy and may become inflamed which may lead to a little bleeding.
The commonest places for them to appear are:
Genital warts are not caused by the same virus that causes warts on hands or verrucas on the feet
The most common way for HPV to be passed on is through skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the virus. Genital warts can be passed on even if they are not visible.
Most commonly, this is through sexual activity, such as:
HPV is not passed on by kissing, hugging or sharing towels and clothing or via everyday items such as cutlery or toilet seats.
Condoms can help protect you from HPV but the virus may still be passed on by the surrounding genital areas coming into contact.
If you suspect you have genital warts or if a partner has them, you need to visit a Brook service, a GUM or sexual health clinic or your local GP surgery. Find your nearest using our find a service tool.
There is no test for genital warts but it is easy for a doctor or nurse to diagnose by examining the area. In some cases, they may need to perform a more detailed examination in order to see if there are warts inside the vagina or anus.
You will only be offered treatment if you have visible warts. The two main types of treatment for genital warts are:
The type of treatment depends on the warts. Cream or lotion can be better on softer warts but the other treatment is recommended if they are hard or rough-feeling.
You can read detailed information about the creams and lotions that may be prescribed and about the freezing, heating or removal treatment on NHS Choices.
For some people it can take months for the treatment to work and for the warts to disappear.
You should tell the doctor or nurse that you are pregnant or if there is a risk of pregnancy as this may affect the treatment they offer you.
It is recommended that you avoid having sex until your genital warts have fully healed. Not only will this help to ensure you don’t pass it on to others but it may also help you recover more quickly.
Over time, genital warts will go away without treatment but if left untreated, they may also grow larger or multiply. They are rarely harmful to your health but genital warts can look unpleasant and may cause discomfort.
You should not use the wart creams that are available over the counter because they are designed to only treat warts on the hands or verrucas
Strains 16 and 18 of HPV can cause cell changes that can lead to cervical cancer. There is a vaccination programme that is offered to all girls aged 12 – 13 to protect against some of the different strains of HPV. This vaccine offers protection against the two types of HPV (16 & 18) and also offers protection against developing genital warts. There has been a fall in genital warts because of the HPV vaccine.
In July 2018 the Department of Health and Social Care decided to extend the vaccination programme to boys. This will likely begin late 2019.
Not an STI but STIs can trigger it.
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